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Friday, October 28, 2016

Geoengineering Patents || Weather Modification

Geoengineering Patents - Chronological Order (Earliest to Latest)
Method of Producing Rain-Fall
Patent #: US462795 A
Publication date: Nov 10, 1891
Filing date: Jul 16, 1891

...In accordance, therefore, with my invention liquefied carbonic-acid gas is liberated in the upper regions of the atmosphere and will of course instantly evaporate and spread out in a sheet of vapor of an extremely low temperature and produce a cloud. The surrounding atmosphere will be chilled by its proximity to the cold vapor and the moisture in the atmosphere will be condensed thereby. The condensation takes place in large quantities and with great rapidity, so that a cloud is formed that will precipitate a rain-fall upon the earth...

Patent #: US1103490 A
Publication date: Jul 14, 1914
Filing date: Aug 6, 1913

...A further object of my invention is to accomplish this by supplying moisture, heat and nitrogen to the air at a considerable distance above the earths surface and by violently agitating the air by means of explosives raised above the earths surface, by balloons, kites or other suitable de ices. I use explosives to agitate the atmosphere and with the nitrogen used, cause a moist condition to prevail, producing rain...

Process and Apparatus for the Production of Intense Artificial Clouds, Fogs, or Mists
Patent #: US1338343 A
Publication date: Apr 27, 1920
Filing date: Dec 10, 1917


Process of Producting Artificial Fogs
Patent #: US1665267 A
Publication date: Apr 10, 1928
Filing date: Jul 14, 1925


Atomizing Attachment for Airplane Engine Exhausts
Patent #: US1892132 A
Publication date: Dec 27, 1932
Filing date: Sep 29, 1931

...This invention relates to spray distribution by means of an airplane, particularly with a view to destroying insects and other pests on vegetation.

It has long been known that the atomizing of a liquid may be accomplished by discharging the liquid to be atomized into a flow of gases at a high velocity (usually air), provided the discharge is made through sufficiently small jets or passages.

The principal object of my invention is to provide a spray device for use on an airplane in which the atomizing of the liquid is accomplished along the above lines by means of exhaust gases from the engine of the airplane as such gases discharge into the atmosphere,

and which have a velocity sufficiently high to be very effective for the purpose...

Aerial Discharge Device
Patent #: US2480967 A
Publication date: Sep 6, 1949
Filing date: Jan 18, 1946

...This invention relates to the aerial discharge of liquids confined in a container under a gaseous pressure, and has for its object the provision of certain improvements in devices therefor...

Process for Controlling Weather
Patent #: US2550324 A
Publication date: Apr 24, 1951
Filing date: May 7, 1948

This invention relates to a process for effecting changes in weather conditions and more specifically to a process for dissipating clouds and fog by clearing the atmosphere of moisture particles that are large enough to be visible and yet not large enough to fall out of suspension in the gases of the atmosphere. The overall object of the present invention is directed to the control of weather conditions generally.

Another object of this invention is to control weather which causes hail damage, lightning and interferences with wave transmissions by the reduction of visible water vapor through the dissipation of cumulonimbus clouds.

Another object of this invention is the control of weather by dissipating typhoons', hurricanes, and other storm centers by the dissipation of the convective clouds forming the weather phenomena.

Another object of the present invention is the control of weather causing snow and sleet in heavily populated areas where large quantities are particularly undesirable because of its effect on traiiic conditions.

Another object of the present invention is the process of dissipating weather frontal systems which cause floods due to continuous rains.

Another object of the present invention is to provide rain in designated areas by use of my weather control processes.

Another object of the present invention is to provide desirable weather for sport events and all other outdoor recreational activities which require good weather;

Another object of the present invention is to' provide desirable weather for businesses now to weather control generally is limited only by the number of different types of weather conditions.

Method for Dispersing Natural Atmospheric Fogs and Clouds
Patent #: US2908442 A
Publication date: Oct 13, 1959
Filing date: Jan 16, 1959

The dispersal of fogs and clouds and the causing of precipitation therefrom was heretofore known to be possible only under certain conditions, that is, under conditions in which the temperature of the water droplets or supercooled vapor in at least some part of the cloud or fog was below freezing. The two most Well known of such methods for example, have employed in one instance solid carbon dioxide, and in the other silver iodide. Both of such methods have required, for their effective carrying out, the seeding of clouds at below freezing temperatures. Such is of little use particularly for dispersion of fogs and low clouds, since low lying clouds and particularly the fogs prevalent in coastal areas normally are above freezing.

Cloud Seeding Carbon Dioxide Bullet
Patent #: US2963975 A
Publication date: Dec 13, 1960
Filing date: May 5, 1958

...This invention relates to cloud seeding bullets, and more particularly to a cloud seeding bullet of the type wherein liquid carbon dioxide under pressure is released through one or more metering holes at some time after it leaves the gun from which it is fired...

Silver Iodide Cloud Seeding Generator
Patent #: US3126155 A
Publication date: Mar 24, 1964
Filing date: May 24, 1960

...This invention comprises a novel and useful silver iodide cloud seeding generator and more particularly relates to a cloud seeding apparatus for use in aircraft to induce rainfall, disperse fogs and the like...

Generation of Ice-Nucleating Crystal
Patent #: US3127107 A
Publication date: Mar 31, 1964
Filing date: May 29, 1961

...This invention pertains to the art of cloud seeding. It relates to a new process and a new device for generating crystals of ice-nucleating materials for introduction of the same into supercooled atmospheric clouds...

Electrostatic Mixing in Microbial Conversions
Patent #: US3131131 A
Publication date: Apr 28, 1964
Filing date: Apr 3, 1962

...This invention relates to microbial oxidation or utilization of hydrocarbons. More particularly, it relates to bringing microbes into intimate, maximum contact with hydrocarbon particles...

Cloud Seeding Apparatus
Patent #: US3313487 A
Publication date: Apr 11, 1967
Filing date: Apr 16, 1965

...The present invention relates in general to cloud seeding apparatus and more particularly to an airborne cloud seeding device adapted for the producing of gamma-type silver iodide crystals to be dispensed in clouds for inducing rain...

Patent #: US3429507 A
Publication date: Feb 25, 1969
Filing date: Jul 25, 1966

This invention comprises a device and process for the production of rain...

Fluidized Particle Dispenser
Patent #: US3432208 A
Publication date: Mar 11, 1969
Filing date: Nov 7, 1967

A device for dispersing fluidized micron-size particles in bulk form at a constant weight flow into a high pressure gas flow. A tank containing a bed of particles is provided with a porous cone lower section having an adjustable opening at its apex which is downwardly directed. Pressurized air is introduced from below through the porous cone causing the particle bed to be lifted and fluidized, allowing the minute particles to flow downward through the adjustable opening in the cone and into an entrainment chamber where a moving air stream picks up and delivers the fluidized particles into the high pressure gas flow...

Method and Apparatus for Seeding Clouds
Patent #: US3441214 A
Publication date: Apr 29, 1969
Filing date: Jan 9, 1967

An apparatus and method for seeding clouds from an alrcraft by means of a package including an explosive generator containing silver iodide...

Method of Producing Precipitation from the Atmosphere and Apparatus Therefor
Patent #: US3456880 A
Publication date: Jul 22, 1969
Filing date: Oct 18, 1966

The invention relates to a method for producing precipitation from the atmosphere and to apparatus for carrying out the method...

Artificial Ion Cloud
Patent #: US3518670 A
Publication date: Jun 30, 1970
Filing date: Sep 25, 1967

Apparatus and method for producing in the ozone layer an artificial ion cloud having sufficient electron density to reflect electromagnetic waves.

Control of Atmospheric Particles
Patent #: US3534906 A
Publication date: Oct 20, 1970
Filing date: Nov 20, 1967

This invention relates to a method for the control of atmospheric moisture and more particularly relates to a method for fog abatement and the modification of clouds...

Method of Cloud Seeding
Patent #: US3545677 A
Publication date: Dec 8, 1970
Filing date: May 3, 1968

Conventionally, clouds are seeded by dispersing in them ice-nucleating crystals of silver iodide. This has been done either by a combustion process of vaporizing silver iodide at a high temperature and causing it to recrystallize or by spraying into the atmosphere a solution of silver iodide in ammonia or by burning a solution of silver iodide in acetone. In the former process a combustible has to be burned. In the latter two cases, inflammable, toxic, or corrosive solutions must be handled...

Method of Increasing the likelihood of Precipitation by the Artificial Introduction of Sea Water Vapor into the Atmosphere Windward of an Air Lift Region
Patent #: US3601312 A
Publication date: Aug 24, 1971
Filing date: Apr 28, 1969

The invention pertains to a method of producing fresh water utilizing modification of air mass conditions by injecting sea water into solar-heated air to evaporate sea water into the atmosphere and increase the air water vapor content, and thereby greatly increase the capacity of the so modified air mass for absorbing the available radiant energy for warming the air by solar and terrcstial radiant energy to increase the ability of the air to absorb increased quantities of water vapor and ambient temperature, and thereafter lift the treated air to sufficient altitudes to produce convective instability, cumuliform clouds and precipitation...

Methods of Treating Atmospheric Conditions
Patent #: US3608810 A
Publication date: Sep 28, 1971
Filing date: Dec 5, 1968

The present invention pertains to methods of treating atmospheric conditions and more particularly to methods of treating atmosphere conditions by dispensing materials therein to cause coalescence of water droplets...

Treatment of Atmospheric Conditions by Intermittent Dispensing of Materials Therein
Patent #: US3608820 A
Publication date: Sep 28, 1971
Filing date: Dec 5, 1968

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Accordingly it is an object of the present invention to treat atmospheric conditions by intermittently dispensing unbalancing material therein.

Weather Modification Method
Patent #: US3613992 A
Publication date: Oct 19, 1971
Filing date: Mar 25, 1966

WEATHER MODIFICATION METHOD The invention described herein may be manufactured and used by or for the Government of the United States of America for Governmental purposes without the payment of any royalties thereon or therefor.

The present invention relates to weather modification and more particularly to the production of rain or snow by introducing into natural atmospheric clouds seeding agents having a high solubility in water and a large endothermic heat of solution in water...

Weather Modification Utilizing Microencapsulated Material
Patent #: US3659785 A
Publication date: May 2, 1972
Filing date: Dec 8, 1970

A fog and cloud seeding method and agent utilizing microencapsulation techniques whereby controlled seeding particle size for both dry initial particles and particles dispensed as solution droplets provides for the production and maintenance of a predetermined particle spectrum when using hygroscopic chemical compounds which are fragile, brittle or friable in crystalline structure. A hygroscopic chemical agent to be utilized in cloud or fog seeding is provided with a liquid permeable capsule shell such that optimization of particle size for improved seeding results is obtained.

Air Pollution Control Method
Patent #: US3784099 A
Publication date: Jan 8, 1974
Filing date: Dec 13, 1971

A mixture of seeding, pollutant inhibiting, and co-alescing chemicals are vaporized and dispersed in a jetting action into the atmosphere to provide an aggregate of nuclei on the order of subcolloidal approximately submicromolecular sizes upon which nucleations of water vapor in the atmosphere take place free from adjacent nucleations to form water droplets and ice crystals with accompanying releases of latent heat, the water droplets, ice crystals further serving as nuclei in a breeding action for a chain reaction of latent heat releases with the vaporized coalescing chemicals aiding in the coalescence of water droplets and the released latent heat diffuses upwardly in an outward expansion to produce an updraft whereby to puncture atmospheric inversions and inhibit the formation of secondary pollutants.

Cloud Seeding System
Patent #: US3785557 A
Publication date: Jan 15, 1974
Filing date: Dec 21, 1972

A cloud seeding system comprising a solid propellant rocket motor boosted vehicle and means for launching the vehicle for transporting cloud seeding material to clouds for increasing precipitation and/or suppressing hail growth. The vehicle comprises a pyrotechnical booster element and a seeding material carrier or dart element, automatically separable from each other, the booster element being provided with an automatically releasable parachute or other means for retarding the speed of fallout consisting of the booster motor and an interstage coupling between the two elements released after burnout of the booster and separation of the two elements. Launching means are provided for directing the trajectory of the motor boosted vehicle.

Weather Modification Process
Patent #: US3795626 A
Publication date: Mar 5, 1974
Filing date: Aug 31, 1971

Condensation products of naphthalene sulfonic acids and aliphatic aldehydes or furfural or compounds capable of setting free such aldehydes are effective in influencing the weather, i.e. they remove fog or clouds or cause rain...

Rocket having Barium Release System to Create Ion Clouds in the Upper Atmosphere
Patent #: US3813875 A
Publication date: Jun 4, 1974
Filing date: Apr 28, 1972

A chemical system for releasing a good yield of free barium (Ba DEG ) atoms and barium ions (BA<+>) to create ion clouds in the upper atmosphere and interplanetary space for the study of the geophysical properties of the medium.

Method of Generating Ice Nuclei Smoke Particles for Weather Modification and Apparatus Therefor
Patent #: US3835059 A
Publication date: Sep 10, 1974
Filing date: Sep 5, 1972

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION A number of different methods are practiced in seeding clouds and fogs. One conventional method of seeding involves dispersing a fine smoke, spray or dust of a solid substrate (ice-nuclei compound) into a cloud. Currently silver iodide is the most widely employed ice-nuclei compound. In practice an ice-nuclei compound is evaporated in the flame of a sprayed organic solution and subsequently is condensed by contact with cooler outside air. Ice nucleation occurs by the collision of water droplets present in a cloud or fog with ice-nuclei compound particles introduced therein. Ice nucleation takes place in a cloud as the icenuclei compound particles apparently cause the water molecules Within a cloud or fog to assume an ice lattice structure. This process requires the temperature of the cloud to be below the freezing point of water C.).

Electrical Heating Apparatus for Generating Superheated Vapors
Patent #: US3835293 A
Publication date: Sep 10, 1974
Filing date: Sep 17, 1973

An improved apparatus for generating superheated vapors of vaporizable organic liquids having a novel superheating section capable of delivering a wide swath of superheated vapors. The new section is substantially a loop of electrical resistance tubing connected to the vapor generating section of a mobile or hand-held electrical resistance tube heater. The loop is hollow through about two-thirds of its length, the remainder, the return to the electrical circuit, being solid. The tubular portion of the superheater has a plurality of perforations in a substantially straight section, which section is surrounded by a slotted housing for directing the vapors entering the housing from the perforated tube.

Process for Local Modification of the Structure of Fog and Clouds for Triggering their Precipitation and for Hindering the Development of Hail Producing clouds
Patent #: US3896993 A
Publication date: Jul 29, 1975
Filing date: Sep 10, 1973

The dispersing of hydrophilic sodium alginate particles in fog and clouds has been found to modify their structure, trigger their precipitation and hinder the development of hail-producing clouds.

Apparatus for Generating Ice Nuclei Smoke Particles for Weather Modification
Patent #: US3899129 A
Publication date: Aug 12, 1975
Filing date: Apr 16, 1974

Ice-nuclei smoke particles are produced through contact of an organic ice-nuclei compound with superheated steam under pressure, followed by internal adiabatic and isentropic expansion using a supersonic nozzle.

Powder Contrail Generation
Patent #: US3899144 A
Publication date: Aug 12, 1975
Filing date: Jul 22, 1974

Light scattering pigment powder particles, surface treated to minimize interparticle cohesive forces, are dispensed from a jet mill deagglomerator as separate single particles to produce a powder contrail having maximum visibility or radiation scattering ability for a given weight material.

Method of Fog Dispersion
Patent #: US3940059 A
Publication date: Feb 24, 1976
Filing date: Jun 4, 1971

A method of dispersing warm fog by forming a hygroscopic solution composedf urea and ammonium nitrate in water and spraying said solution into the fog cloud to be treated.

Vortex Ring Generator
Patent #: US3940060 A
Publication date: Feb 24, 1976
Filing date: Aug 23, 1974

A vortex generator including a heat source in the base of a cylindrical member with a circular ringwing in the shape of an airfoil which is lifted upward and then impulsively released to move rapidly downward and thus generate a vortex behind it. The vorticity in the core of the vortex is highly concentrated and moves rapidly upward through cloud cover. A strong light in the center of the vortex will shine to great heights making it especially useful as an airport beacon or the like. When the invention is used with a chimney, the effluents therein are caused to proceed rapidly upward through atmospheric obstacles such as thermal inversions which have been cleared by the action of the vortex.

Weather Modification Automatic Cartridge Dispenser
Patent #: US4141274 A
Publication date: Feb 27, 1979
Filing date: Oct 14, 1977

A weather modification cartridge dispenser for automatically igniting and spensing pyrotechnic weather modification rounds wherein the dispenser is basically a motor driven automatic spring powered gun.

Fluid Bed Chaff Dispenser
Patent #: US4167008 A
Publication date: Sep 4, 1979
Filing date: Sep 23, 1976

The dispensing of the chaff fibers takes place in two distinct steps. Initially, a mixture of chaff and fluidization media is delivered to a fluidization chamber. Bleed air from the jet engines is caused to flow through the mixture of chaff and fluidization media to thereby cause the chaff fibers to churn and become separated in the fluidization chamber. Valves located at the ends of the fluidization chamber open in response to pilot or onboard ECM system activation to dispense the pre-separated chaff fibers.

Procedure for the Artificial Modification of Atmospheric Precipitation as well as Compounds with a Dimethyl Sulfoxide base for use in Carrying out said Procedure
Patent #: US4362271 A
Publication date: Dec 7, 1982
Filing date: Oct 29, 1980

A process for artificially modifying atmospheric precipitation wherein a liquid composition containing dimethyl sulfoxide as the principal ingredient is dispersed into the atmosphere from a container in microdroplet form having an average diameter ranging from 1 to 10 microns.

Atmosphere Modification Satellite
Patent #: US4402480 A
Publication date: Sep 6, 1983
Filing date: Nov 19, 1980

The Atmosphere Modification Satellite is intended to be the beginning of a possible world-wide network of satellites designed to improve Earth through application of techniques and monitoring resulting in atmosphere modification. Energy sources of said satellite consist of: solar, electrical, energy particle beam(s), laser and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). At proper plane(s) of orbit, the satellite is capable of identifying target areas and administering "M-Probes" to monitor, sample and/or modify the atmosphere. There is no limit to the number of types of atmosphere modification the satellite will perform.

Laminar Microjet Atomizer and Method of Aerial Spraying of Liquids
Patent #: US4412654 A
Publication date: Nov 1, 1983
Filing date: Sep 11, 1981

A laminar microjet atomizer and method of aerial spraying involve the use of a streamlined body having a slot in the trailing edge thereof to afford a quiescent zone within the wing and into which liquid for spraying is introduced. The liquid flows from a source through a small diameter orifice having a discharge end disposed in the quiet zone well upstream of the trailing edge. The liquid released into the quiet zone in the slot forms drops characteristic of laminar flow. Those drops then flow from the slot at the trailing edge of the streamlined body and discharge into the slipstream for free distribution.

Method of and means for Weather Modification
Patent #: US4470544 A
Publication date: Sep 11, 1984
Filing date: Aug 4, 1980

The weather near a continental arid zone is modified by increasing the heat storage of the seas westwardly of the arid zone during the summer. The heat storage is increased by mixing the relatively warmer surface water with relatively cooler deeper water thereby reducing the surface temperature of the seas during the summer. Cooling the surface of the water will increase the radiant heat flux due to solar radiation and decrease the radiant heat loss from the surface during the summer thus increasing the amount of heat stored in the water an available for evaporation during the winter. Mixing is achieved by pumping water from a lower level in the seas to the upper level. In one embodiment of the invention, normal wave motion provides the mode of power for the pumping operation. In another embodiment, mixing is achieved by a paddle that is operated by wave motion.

Aerosol Particle Charge and size Analyzer
Patent #: US4633714 A
Publication date: Jan 6, 1987
Filing date: Aug 13, 1985

An instrument for analyzing the size and charge of aerosol particles employs a dual beam laser Doppler velocimeter to track the motion of a particle while subjecting the particle to a sinusoidal acoustic field and to a pulsed, high voltage electric field. The particle transmitting through the crossed beams of the laser Doppler velocimeter moves with an oscillatory motion due to the acoustic field and, if the particle is charged, it has a horizontal drift parallel to the electric field during the electric pulse. The phase lag of the particle's motion with respect to the acoustic field is measured to determine the aerodynamic diameter of the particle and the velocity and the direction of the drift relative to the polarity of the applied high voltage electric field is used to determine the magnitude and polarity of the electric charge of the particle.

Method and Apparatus for Modification of Climatic Conditions
Patent #: US4643355 A
Publication date: Feb 17, 1987
Filing date: Dec 16, 1985

A fog generator comprises a duct which is preferably vertical and very tall, an air mover for moving air down through the duct, an air director which includes a spout to direct the air emerging from the duct in a substantially horizontal stream in a chosen direction away from the duct and a fog generator which generates a fog into the moving air preferably after the air has left the spout. The spout is preferably rotatable in a horizontal plane. The invention enables a generated fog to be placed where required by the air stream in which it is entrained rather than relying on natural wind drift.

Method of Producing Cumulus Clouds
Patent #: US4653690 A
Publication date: Mar 31, 1987
Filing date: Nov 5, 1984

The disruption of a thermal inversion and formation of cumulus clouds is duced by the ignition of a pyrotechnic composition containing an alkali earth metal. The combined heats of hydration, condensation and combustion of the composition disrupt the thermal layer allowing the passage of warm moist air into a zone of cooler air. The formation of cumulonimbus or cumulus clouds results.

Method and Apparatus for Altering a Region in the Earth's Atmosphere, Ionosphere, and/or Magnetosphere [HAARP Patent]
Patent #: US4686605 A
Publication date: Aug 11, 1987
Filing date: Jan 10, 1985

A method and apparatus for altering at least one selected region which normally exists above the earth's surface. The region is excited by electron cyclotron resonance heating to thereby increase its charged particle density. In one embodiment, circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation is transmitted upward in a direction substantially parallel to and along a field line which extends through the region of plasma to be altered. The radiation is transmitted at a frequency which excites electron cyclotron resonance to heat and accelerate the charged particles. This increase in energy can cause ionization of neutral particles which are then absorbed as part of the region thereby increasing the charged particle density of the region.

Method and Apparatus for Creating an Artificial Electron Cyclotron Heating Region of Plasma
Patent #: US4712155 A
Publication date: Dec 8, 1987
Filing date: Jan 28, 1985

A method and apparatus altering a region of plasma that lies above the earth's surface at altitudes (e.g. below 50 kilometer) where the collison rate of the electrons in the plasma is originally greater than the cyclotron frequency of the electrons. First, artificial magnetic lines of force are established from the earth's surface by positioning a loop of cable at the earth's surface. An electrical current of sufficient amperage is passed through the cable which inherently generates the artificial magnetic field from the center of the loop. The field strength B on the artificial lines in the region of plasma to be altered is sufficient to increase the cyclotron frequency of the electrons in the plasma so that it will exceed the rate of collosion of the electrons. The plasma is then excited by electron cyclotron resonance heating to thereby further alter the plasma by transmitting circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation upward in a direction substantially parallel to and along the artificial field lines.

Method of Dispersing Particulate Aerosol Tracer
Patent #: US4744919 A
Publication date: May 17, 1988
Filing date: Sep 12, 1986

A particulate aerosol tracer which comprises a particulate carrier of sheet silicate composition having a particle size up to one micron, and a cationic dopant chemically absorbed in solid solution in the carrier. The carrier is preferably selected from the group consisting of natural mineral clays such as bentonite, and the dopant is selected from the group consisting of rare earth elements and transition elements. The tracers are dispersed by forming an aqueous salt solution with the dopant present as cations, dispersing the carriers in the solution, and then atomizing the solution under heat sufficient to superheat the solution droplets at a level sufficient to prevent reagglomeration of the carrier particles.

Method of Suppressing Formation of Contrails and Solution Therefor
Patent #: US4766725 A
Publication date: Aug 30, 1988
Filing date: Dec 24, 1985

A method of suppressing the formation of contrails from the exhaust of an engine including the steps of providing a solution of a non-corrosive surfactant in a combined carrier and nucleating agent selected from the group of water soluble monohydric, dihydric, trihydric or other polyhydric alcohols, forming the solution into a vapor, and injecting the solution into the exhaust of the engine. The solution may include by weight between about 0.01% to 2.5% of the non-corrosive surfactant, between about 1% and 8% water, and between about 85% and 99% ethylene glycol. Another solution may include by weight a monohydric, dihydric or polyhydric alcohol in an amount of between about 85% and 99% and the non-corrosive surfactant in an amount of between about 0.01% and 8%. Still another solution may include an inorganic nucleating or hygroscopic salt, such as ammonium iodide, ammonium fluoride, silver iodide or calcium chloride in monohydric, dihydric or polyhydric alcohols and surfactant mixtures.

Creation of Artificial Ionization Clouds Above the Earth
Patent #: US4999637 A
Publication date: Mar 12, 1991
Filing date: May 14, 1987

A method for forming a cloud of artificial ionization above the earth by initially heating the resident plasma at a desired altitude with electromagnetic radiation having a frequency approximately the same as that of the ambient plasma. As the plasma frequency increases due to heating, the radiation frequency is also increased until the final maintenance frequency is attained.

Stratospheric Welsbach Seeding for Reduction of Global Warming
Patent #: US5003186 A
Publication date: Mar 26, 1991
Filing date: Apr 23, 1990

A method is described for reducing atmospheric or global warming resulting from the presence of heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere, i.e., from the greenhouse effect. Such gases are relatively transparent to sunshine, but absorb strongly the long-wavelength infrared radiation released by the earth. The method incudes the step of seeding the layer of heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere with particles of materials characterized by wavelength-dependent emissivity. Such materials include Welsbach materials and the oxides of metals which have high emissivity (and thus low reflectivities) in the visible and 8-12 micron infrared wavelength regions.

Apparatus and Method for Ejecting Matter from an Aircraft
Patent #: US5104069 A
Publication date: Apr 14, 1992
Filing date: Oct 29, 1990

A fluid ejector for discharging gases and fluids from an aircraft. The fluid ejector is fastened to an exterior surface of the aircraft and includes an air tube which is spaced apart from the exterior surface of the aircraft by a mast. Unwanted fluids and gases are evacuated from the aircraft through a conduit located inside the drain mast and are expelled from an outlet located in the side of the air tube. In this manner, the liquid or gases present at the outlet are discharged in a rearward direction away from the downstream portion of the aircraft by the airstream through the tube.

Cloud Seeding
Patent #: US5174498 A
Publication date: Dec 29, 1992
Filing date: Jan 15, 1991

Long-chain aliphatic alcohols are provided that induce nucleation of ice at temperatures within the range from -8° C. to 0° C., from supercooled water present as small drops and/or in the vapor state, and are useful for seeding supercooled clouds in order to augment rainfall.

Method of Cloud Seeding
Patent #: US5357865 A
Publication date: Oct 25, 1994
Filing date: Feb 21, 1992

A method of cloud seeding for precipitation enhancement comprises releasing hygroscopic seeding particles from a seeding flare 10. The particles are obtained by burning, in the flare, a pyrotechnic composition which includes, as an oxidizing agent, a compound selected from the group consisting in potassium chlorate and potassium perchlorate. The particles are allowed to enter a suitable cloud formation. The particles act as seeds or nuclei for precipitable water drop formation, thereby to enhance precipitation from the cloud formation

Method and Composition for Precipitation of Atmospheric Water
Patent #: US5360162 A
Publication date: Nov 1, 1994
Filing date: Jun 4, 1992

A method for precipitating atmospheric water by means of multicomponent aerosols, including iodide based complex multicomponent aerosol compositions. The compositions comprise a solid mass formed by a compacted mixture of silver iodide and the iodides, iodates, and periodates of alkali metals, lead, copper, barium; ammonia, barium chromate, and selected oxidizers such as ammonium perchlorate, and fuels such as poly-p-phenylene, phenol formaldehyde resin, epoxide resin, and shellac and mixtures thereof. The compositions, upon burning, produce an aerosol effective to promote atmospheric water precipitation.

Method to Hinder the Formation and to break-up Overhead Atmospheric Inversions, Enhance Ground level air Circulation and improve Urban Air Quality
Patent #: US5425413 A
Publication date: Jun 20, 1995
Filing date: Jun 1, 1993

Disclosed is a method for hindering the formation and for penetrating and breaking-up overhead atmospheric inversions, enhancing ground level air circulation and, improving urban air quality and transporting ozone to the upper atmospheres by the use of waste heat, including combustion gases, rejected to the atmosphere during power generation.

Method of Hydrometeor Dissipation
Patent #: US5556029 A
Publication date: Sep 17, 1996
Filing date: Sep 12, 1994

A method of dissipating hydrometeors (clouds) that includes transmitting electromagnetic radiation (e.g., light energy, from the sun, for example) that is absorbed by water vapor into the cloud to be dissipated and continuing the transmission of such energy into the cloud until it dissipates. The source of electromagnetic radiation can be a large mirror located on the surface of the earth, that reflects sunlight into the cloud to be dissipated. In a still more specific embodiment of the invention, the wind speed, direction, cloud altitude and sun movement relative to the earth is tracked to determine the mirror orientation and tracking necessary to disperse a particular cloud or clouds. In addition, an array of earth-mounted mirrors could be utilized in a coordinated fashion to dissipate a group or larger volume of clouds.

Method and Apparatus for Modification of Supercooled Fog
Patent #: US5628455 A
Publication date: May 13, 1997
Filing date: May 31, 1994

A method an apparatus for reducing super cooled fog which involves the introduction of liquid carbon dioxide in a horizontal line along the ground under the fog from a moving vehicle.

Method and Device for Remote Diagnostics of Ocean-Atmosphere System State
Patent #: US5631414 A
Publication date: May 20, 1997
Filing date: Aug 9, 1994

A method for remote diagnostic of ocean-atmosphere system state consisting in the measurement of upwelling microwave radiation of ocean-atmosphere system in the range, approximately, from 20 to 100 GHz at viewing angles with respect to the ocean surface ranges, approximately, from 60° to 80°, is discussed. A device for remote diagnostic of ocean-atmosphere system state contains a receiving antenna to which the radiometers are connected and tuned to operating frequencies in the range, approximately, from 20 to 100 GHz, whereby the brightness temperature of upwelling microwave radiation of ocean-atmosphere system is measured. The microwave data obtain by this means are analyzed for the presence of specific spectral and polarization brightness temperature variations, by which it is judged about ocean-atmosphere system state.

Use of Artificial Satellites in Earth Orbits Adaptively to Modify the Effect that Solar Radiation would Otherwise have on Earth's Weather
Patent #: US5762298 A
Publication date: Jun 9, 1998
Filing date: Jun 7, 1995

A Satellite Weather Modification System (SWMS) uses earth satellites to harness solar energy to modify the thermodynamics and composition of the earth's atmosphere. SWMS has three subsystems: The first subsystem includes a network of earth satellites called Satellite Engines (SEs) used to reflect solar energy and/or transform solar energy into other forms of energy beams discharged at specified locations. The media at these locations and the media through which the energy beams pass absorb these energies and change them into heat. The second subsystem includes a large network of Remote Sensing Devices (RSDs). These sensors are used to measure local media compositions, dynamic parameters and thermodynamic properties. Sensor measurements are fed back to the third subsystem, which includes a network of Ground Control Stations (GCSs). GCSs provide energy beam guidance by estimating each beam's characteristics and its aim point trajectory as functions of time. Integration of these three subsystems establishes a sensor feedback energy beam guidance and control loop. SWMS's weather modification applications include alteration of precipitation, reclaiming of wasteland, reducing damage by bad weather, and improving environment. Its non-weather related applications include supplying concentrated energy to electricity generating stations (solar, wind and hydro), high latitude greenhouse farms, and solar powered airplanes.

System and Method for Remediation of Selected Atmospheric Conditions
Patent #: US5912396 A
Publication date: Jun 15, 1999
Filing date: Jul 7, 1997

The system includes a platform assembly which includes a plurality of helium airships for support of an emitting electrode to produce a large amount of electrical charges, in the form of electrons, into the surrounding atmosphere. The electrons may be generated by various apparati, including field induced emission and ultraviolet induced emission and ionization. Also provided are a large bank of solar cells to produce the necessary power for the assembly and a propulsion system, either a propeller system or an ion engine. A positive electrode may also be included which collects the undesirable atmospheric elements, such as chlorine atoms, to which negative charges have become attached. Alternatively, the platform could be arranged to include a negatively charged surface at which chlorofluorocarbons, for instance, can dissociate after they come in contact with negative charges. Such an ion-propelled platform in the high troposphere or stratosphere could also be used for regional and/or global telecommunications.

Weather Modification by Artificial Satellites
Patent #: US5984239 A
Publication date: Nov 16, 1999
Filing date: Apr 28, 1998

A Satellite Weather Modification System (SWMS) uses earth satellites to harness solar energy to modify the thermodynamics and composition of the earth's atmosphere. SWMS has three subsystems: The first subsystem includes a network of earth satellites called Satellite Engines (SEs) used to reflect solar energy and/or transform solar energy into other forms of energy beams discharged at specified locations. The media at these locations and the media through which the energy beams pass absorb these energies and change them into heat. The second subsystem includes a large network of Remote Sensing Devices (RSDs). These sensors are used to measure local media compositions, dynamic parameters and thermodynamic properties. Sensor measurements are fed back to the third subsystem, which includes a network of Ground Control Stations (GCSs). GCSs provide energy beam guidance by estimating each beam's characteristics and its aim point trajectory as functions of time. Integration of these three subsystems establishes a sensor feedback energy beam guidance and control loop. SWMS's weather modification applications include alteration of precipitation, reclaiming of wasteland, reducing damage by bad weather, and improving environment. Its non-weather related applications include supplying concentrated energy to electricity generating stations (solar, wind and hydro), high latitude greenhouse farms, and solar powered airplanes.

Method and Apparatus for Modifying Supercooled Clouds
Patent #: US6056203 A
Publication date: May 2, 2000
Filing date: Dec 8, 1997

Factors controlling the effect of cloud seeding were critically examined, and a new horizontal penetration seeding method using liquid homogeneous ice nucleants at the lower level of the supercooled portion of clouds was invented to maximize the microphysics-dynamics interaction between the seeded ice crystal thermal and the supercooled cloud through optimal utilization of the phase change energy. Cloud seeding tests showed a remarkable effect. This method allows the development of twin rotating horizontal cylinders of ice crystal thermal, which slowly rise, expand and entrain the supercooled cloud droplets to provide the supersaturated condition and time for the required growth of seeded ice crystals. When the thermal reaches the top of the cloud, it spreads horizontally while lowering the ice crystals of sufficiently large size and fall velocity resulting in an effective treatment of the existing and induced cloud volume for precipitation augmentation and the associated dynamic effect.
The seeding method and apparatus for the operation are claimed.

Method of Modifying Weather
Patent #: US6315213 B1
Publication date: Nov 13, 2001
Filing date: Jun 21, 2000

A method for artificially modifying the weather by seeding rain clouds of a storm with suitable cross-linked aqueous polymer. The polymer is dispersed into the cloud and the wind of the storm agitates the mixture causing the polymer to absorb the rain. This reaction forms a gelatinous substance which precipitate to the surface below. Thus, diminishing the clouds ability to rain.

Charged Seed Cloud as a Method for Increasing Particle Collisions and for Scavenging Airborne Biological Agents and Other Contaminants
Patent #: US8373962 B2
Publication date: Feb 12, 2013
Filing date: Aug 15, 2007

A system and method is provided for increasing interaction between seed particles in a seed cloud and target particles to be neutralized, detected or knocked down to the ground. This is achieved by applying a charge to the seed particles so that the seed cloud formed by release of the seed particles at altitude is highly charged, which in turn produces a strong electric field between the seed cloud and ground. The relatively strong electric field causes the seed particles to move downward (toward the ground) at a velocity sufficient to increase interaction (collisions) between the seed particles and the target particles


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